Twinned thesis

Twinned thesis between the partners universities have been developed to enhance the creation of new synergies between HEIs as a whole, the enterprises and companies, public and private bodies which have an interest in networking and sharing the experience for promoting solution and strategies for access to energy.

Federica Borriello, Silvia Chindemi

Universities

Politecnico
di Milano

Technical University
of Kenya

Technical University
of Mombasa

Students

Federica Borriello

Silvia Chindemi

Supervisors

Prof.ssa Emanuela Colombo

Prof. Athalia Ochieng

Prof. Michael Saulo

Abstract 1/2

This work aims at assessing the current status of didactical laboratories in Kenyan Higher Education Institutions (HEI), with a focus on the Technical University of Kenya (TUK) and the Technical University of Mombasa (TUM). Its final goal consists of recommending appropriate energy related solutions for the labs' upgrading.

The study is carried out as part of the assessment phase of EU Edulink ENERGISE Project, funded by the European Commission with support of ACP-EU Cooperation Programme in Higher Education. This project has the purpose of boosting the contribution of HEIs' network in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania working on Energy Engineering curricula to promote access to energy, efficiency and related socio-economic development. The ultimate goal of the project consortium, with Politecnico di Milano as co-ordinator, will be to develop and deliver innovative curricula in Sustainable Energy Engineering.

In order to understand more deeply the context, a preliminary analysis of the Kenyan socioeconomic and energy situation is carried out, including also a comparison with the other East Africa countries and Italy.

In addition, an overview on the status of education in energy engineering in the country is presented, thanks to two different investigation's methodologies. The first refers to the data analysis obtained from questionnaires, completed by students and staff members of different Kenyan universities, whereas the second consists in the literature review, which defines the main weaknesses of the education system.

Abstract 2/2

Specifically, this thesis focuses on modernization's proposal for the laboratories of the country's two technical universities, i.e. TUK and TUM. For this reason, the assessment was completed by direct observation and on-site interviews in order to verify the present equipment and the availability of spaces and services necessary for the establishment or improvement of educational workshops. Such meetings both with the HEIs' staff and with representatives of the most important International Organizations present in the country proved to be an useful means to understand the internal dynamics with a first-hand experience and to complete the questionnaires' missing responses through the primary sources.

On the basis of the information collected and the needs emerged from the meetings, an evaluation of the appropriate technologies is conducted and different scenarios are examined and compared. In this perspective, all the options considered are addressed to solve the two main problems identified in the campuses, that are the inefficient waste management system in TUK and the frequent electricity interruptions figured out in TUM.

The final choice is made not only on the basis of a merely economic criterion, but also looking at the action's sustainability, that means to figure out if the maintenance is easily feasible, if the spare parts are smoothly available and if the technology's use is durable over time.

Ignazio Bellini

Universities

Politecnico
di Milano

Dar es Salaam Institute
of Technology

Students

Ignazio Bellini

Supervisors

Prof.ssa Emanuela Colombo

Prof. Bonaventure Saanane

Abstract 1/2

My thesis work has been focused on the role of education for sustainable energy development in developing countries. The activity has been in the frame of the European Project Edulink ENERGISE, which aims at promoting high quality, market-driven curricula in the energy sector. The ENERGISE project is based on the notion that the development of energy-related expertise and technological capacity must necessarily occur through the academic world. In this context, my activity has been devoted to the implementation of the project in Tanzania and included a preparatory analytical study and a six-weeks fieldwork.

Many studies devoted to developing countries have shown evidence of the societal and economical progress that is fostered by both the development of education and the access to energy. Indeed, it is generally found that these elements lead to virtuous cycles, involving both the individual and the social welfare. On this basis, I devoted my attention to an analysis of the general educational and energy scenarios in Tanzania. I have also particularly focused my research on assessing the current status of education at the Tanzanian partner of the project: the Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology (DIT), one of the four Sub-Saharan African Higher Education Institutions partners of ENERGISE.

Abstract 2/2

My fieldwork has been dedicated to investigating on the ground the following issues: the presence of energy-related programs in Tanzania, the level of expertise on energy-related themes in the academic world, the readiness of DIT of hosting energy-related educational programs, the possibility of creating a network between African universities and establishing partnerships with local stakeholders. To this aim, I have thus organized and led 24 interviews with academics and managers of energy companies and I have personally visited every structure at DIT.

This work contributed to a general evaluation of teaching methodologies, available programs and teaching facilities at DIT and other institutions in Tanzania. It also assessed interest and perceived impact of energy-related higher education in the academic world and in energy-related institutions and organizations. My fieldwork indicates that there are no energy-related programs in Tanzania, that current programs do not provide sufficient preparation for the energy business, that the perspective of such a curriculum raises a partial interest from the academic world and a more consistent interest from the energy institutions, that educational infrastructures are present but still inadequate.

The evidence gathered in my thesis work contributed to define the strategy and set the stage for the implementation of a master degree program on energy engineering at DIT as a step towards the improvement of higher education on energy in Tanzania.

Walter Sanzani

Universities

Politecnico
di Milano

Dar es Salaam Institute
of Technology

Students

Walter Sanzani

Supervisors

Prof.ssa Emanuela Colombo

Prof. Bonaventure Saanane

Abstract 1/3

My master thesis work is part of an European Project called ENERGISE (Enlarged Network in Education and Research for a Growing Impact of Sustainable Energy engineering in local development) whose specific object is to foster capacity building for delivering high quality curricula in Energy Engineering promoting a master degree program focused on sustainability, innovative technologies and modern renewable energies relevant to the energy asset of the universities partner in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania.

My studies have been oriented towards the Tanzanian partner of the ENERGISE project, which is the Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology (DIT). The thesis is composed by six chapters.

The first chapter offers the whole vision of the ENERGISE project, specifying which are the general and the specific objectives, who are both the beneficiaries and the HEIs partners involved, as well as the estimated results achievable.

The second chapter assesses the specific context of the United Republic of Tanzania. Specifically, Energy Balance of Tanzania has been carried out followed by detailed analysis of the most recent energy situation of the country. The result is a deepening on electricity and thermal sector, reviewing the access of energy, the costs and the solutions aimed at preventing some energy issues.

Abstract 2/3

The third and fourth chapter concern the first phase of the project ENERGISE which includes researches and data collection carried out both in Italy and in Tanzania.

In particular, performed activities have been divided in two distinctive valuations presented in the third and in the fourth chapter respectively:

  • Assessment for teaching methodologies, facilities and quality of education;
  • Assessment for stakeholders' needs.

The obtained results provide the picture of the current status of education in energy engineering at DIT at different levels as students, lecturers and deans as well as detailed report on the laboratories.

Furthermore, with regard to the analysis about the stakeholders, surveys and meetings have been conducted in order to understand the labor-market's needs in energy sector.

The fifth chapter presents a possible technological proposal in response to the needs of upgrading of the DIT's labs, to the specific requests of the stakeholders and beneficiaries and to the arisen energy issues from the energy situation of Tanzania.

Abstract 3/3

Afterwards the initial study of adding basic tools suitable for e-interactive classes as the main purpose of ENERGISE, different technologies and procedures specific for laboratories quality improvement have been analyzed.

In detail, in order to identifying an adequate solution among small scale biodigester, solar cooling and solar heating active system, a selection has been carried out by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multicriteria method implemented in the software Super Decision. The method has been selected since quantitative and qualitative data have been processed together.

It is performed a feasibility study on a small scale biodigester since it has emerged being the best alternative among the previous proposals.

The last paragraphs define:

  • calculation procedures, including equations and hypotheses, for achieving a correct sizing of biodigester components to install inside the DIT campus;
  • tables and calculation methodologies in order to optimize biogas yield process through adding different biomass sources inside the bioreactor;
  • operation and maintenance guidelines mentioning the main parameters that have to be monitored.

Finally, in the sixth chapter, conclusions of the whole work are discussed.